Crafting strategy by henry mintzberg pdf

Date published 
 
    Contents
  1. Crafting Strategy- Summary's
  2. Crafting Strategy
  3. (PDF) Henry Mintzberg on Strategic Management | Geetha Alagirisamy - nipalraroter.tk

Henry Mintzberg. From the In my metaphor, managers are craftsmen and strategy is their clay. . That is the key to craft, and so also to the crafting of strategy. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Henry Mintzberg and others published Crafting Strategy. Crafting strategy by henry mintzberg pdf. Free Download e-Books When it has won enough and it is time to quit, it quits. Get your mileage odometer to

Author:TAINA WIGHAM
Language:English, Spanish, Hindi
Country:Djibouti
Genre:Business & Career
Pages:746
Published (Last):17.07.2016
ISBN:271-2-25193-171-5
Distribution:Free* [*Registration needed]
Uploaded by: MARKITA

66321 downloads 166512 Views 37.38MB PDF Size Report


Crafting Strategy By Henry Mintzberg Pdf

Crafting Strategy Henry Mintzberg Harvard Business Review No. This document is authorized for use only in Mariano Mastrogiorgio's IEU_3 BBA A,B. Figure 2: The four perspectives on strategy (Whittington, ) Mintzberg . he believed that strategy making is a 'crafting' process (Mintzberg, ); a. Crafting Strategy- Summary's - Free download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Summary 1 Henry Mintzberg skillfully and competently equates the process of strategy making to the process of.

Explore the Archive Loading Imagine someone planning strategy. What likely springs to mind is an image of orderly thinking: a senior manager, or a group of them, sitting in an office formulating courses of action that everyone else will implement on schedule. The keynote is reason—rational control, the systematic analysis of competitors and markets, of company strengths and weaknesses, the combination of these analyses producing clear, explicit, full-blown strategies. Now imagine someone crafting strategy. A wholly different image likely results, as different from planning as craft is from mechanization. Craft evokes traditional skill, dedication, perfection through the mastery of detail. What springs to mind is not so much thinking and reason as involvement, a feeling of intimacy and harmony with the materials at hand, developed through long experience and commitment. Formulation and implementation merge into a fluid process of learning through which creative strategies evolve. My thesis is simple: the crafting image better captures the process by which effective strategies come to be.

Yet if we think of reason—rational control, the systematic analysis of a craftsman as an organization of one, we can see competitors and markets, of company strengths and that he or she must also resolve one of the great weaknesses, the combination of these analyses pro- challenges the corporate strategist faces: knowing ducing clear, explicit, full-blown strategies.

A wholly deeply enough about its strategic direction. By con- different image likely results, as different from plan- sidering strategy making from the perspective of one ning as craft is from mechanization. Craft evokes person, free of all the paraphernalia of what has been traditional skill, dedication, perfection through the called the strategy industry, we can learn something mastery of detail.

What springs to mind is not so about the formation of strategy in the corporation. Formulation and implementation merge into the wheel. Her mind is on the clay, but she is also a fluid process of learning through which creative aware of sitting between her past experiences and strategies evolve.

She knows exactly what has My thesis is simple: the crafting image better cap- and has not worked for her in the past. She has an tures the process by which effective strategies come intimate knowledge of her work, her capabilities, to be. The planning image, long popular in the litera- and her markets. All these things are working in her mind as her hands In developing this thesis, I shall draw on the experi- are working the clay. The product that emerges on ences of a single craftsman, a potter, and compare the wheel is likely to be in the tradition of her past work, but she may break away and embark on a new direction.

Like the potter, they sit between a volume study of strategy formation. All rights reserved.

And if they are truly craftsmen, they acquisitions and internally developed new models, to bring to their work an equally intimate knowledge of a strategic reorientation around more stylish, water- the materials at hand. That is the essence of crafting cooled, frontwheel-drive vehicles in the mids. But what about intended strategies, those formal In the pages that follow, we will explore this meta- plans and pronouncements we think of when we use phor by looking at how strategies get made as the term strategy?

Ironically, here we run into all opposed to how they are supposed to get made. One, described in the were? If we could go back, would we find expressions insert, is a research project on patterns in strategy of intention? And if we could, would we be able to formation that has been going on at McGill Univer- trust them? We often fool ourselves, as well as others, sity under my direction since The second is by denying our subconscious motives.

And remem- the stream of work of a successful potter, my wife, ber that intentions are cheap, at least when compared who began her craft in Then ask them what strategy a competitor or a government or even they themselves If you believe all this has more to do with the have actually pursued.

Strategy, it turns out, is one of those think again. For who knows what the intended strat- words that people define in one way and often use egies of a Volkswagenwerk really mean, let alone in another, without realizing the difference. Can we simply assume in this collec- The reason for this is simple.

Might actions as to describe intended behavior. After all, if these be just vain hopes or rationalizations or ploys strategies can be planned and intended, they can also to fool the competition?

And even if expressed inten- be pursued and realized or not realized, as the case tions exist, to what extent do others in the organiza- may be. And pattern in action, or what we call real- tion share them? How do we read the collective ized strategy, explains that pursuit. Moreover, just mind? Who is the strategist anyway? An organization zational theorists call attribution. You see it all the can have a pattern or realized strategy without time in the business press.

When General Motors knowing it, let alone making it explicit. Patterns, like beauty, are in the mind of the be- Given realization, there must have been intention, holder, of course. But anyone reviewing a chronologi- and that is automatically attributed to the chief. Until , for example, she made small, uncover the origins of strategy, and GM is a large, decorative ceramic animals and objects of various complicated organization.

But just consider all the kinds. Now imagine trying to build a formal strategy- Finding equivalent patterns in action for organiza- making system around that assumption. Indeed, for such wonder that formal strategic planning is often such large companies as Volkswagenwerk and Air Canada, a resounding failure?

As well it should. To unravel some of the confusion—and move away A craftsman, after all, can change what she does in from the artificial complexity we have piled around a studio a lot more easily than a Volkswagenwerk the strategy-making process—we need to get back to can retool its assembly lines.

Mapping the product some basic concepts. The most basic of all is the models at Volkswagenwerk from the late s to intimate connection between thought and action.

We formulate, then we cess of formulation followed by implementation. But implement. The progression seems so perfectly sen- when these planned intentions do not produce the sible. Why would anybody want to proceed differ- desired actions, organizations are left with unreal- ently?

Our potter is in the studio, rolling the clay to make Today we hear a great deal about unrealized strate- a waferlike sculpture. The clay sticks to the rolling gies, almost always in concert with the claim that pin, and a round form appears. Why not make a cylin- implementation has failed. Management has been drical vase? Action has driven thinking: a strategy committed. Excuses abound.

At times, indeed, they has emerged. But often these explanations prove too Out in the field, a salesman visits a customer. The easy. The salesman returns to his enough. A new egies are ill conceived, I believe that the problem product emerges, which eventually opens up a new often lies one step beyond, in the distinction we market. The company has changed strategic course. In an organization dent of and precede action. Sure, people could be of one, the implementor is the formulator, so innova- smarter—but not only by conceiving more clever tions can be incorporated into strategy quickly and strategies.

Sometimes they can be smarter by easily. In effect, they pursue their own strategies. Maybe no one else notices or cares. Sometimes, how- No craftsman thinks some days and works others. Yet large organizations try to sepa- broken down and its leaders are groping for some- rate the work of minds and hands.

In so doing, they thing new. Certainly not. But that information heard stories like it. The notion that strategy is something that NFB came to adopt a feature-film strategy. The NFB should happen way up there, far removed from the is a federal government agency, famous for its cre- details of running an organization on a daily basis, ativity and expert in the production of short docu- is one of the great fallacies of conventional strategic mentaries.

Some years back, it funded a filmmaker management.

Crafting Strategy- Summary's

And it explains a good many of the on a project that unexpectedly ran long. To distribute most dramatic failures in business and public policy his film, the NFB turned to theaters and so inadver- today. Other filmmakers caught onto the idea, and appear without clear intentions—or in spite of eventually the NFB found itself pursuing a feature- them—emergent strategies. Actions simply con- film strategy—a pattern of producing such films.

They may become deliberate, of My point is simple, deceptively simple: strategies course, if the pattern is recognized and then legiti- can form as well as be formulated. A realized strategy mated by senior management. All this may sound rather strange, I know.

Strate- The natural propensity to experiment, even bore- gies that emerge? Managers who acknowledge strate- dom, likewise stimulate strategic change. Over the years, our research Organizations that craft their strategies have simi- group at McGill has met with a good deal of resis- lar experiences.

Recall the National Film Board with tance from people upset by what they perceive to be its inadvertently long film. Or consider its experi- our passive definition of a word so bound up with ences with experimental films, which made special proactive behavior and free will. After all, strategy use of animation and sound. For 20 years, the NFB means control—the ancient Greeks used it to de- produced a bare but steady trickle of such films.

In scribe the art of the army general. McLaren pursued a personal Strategic learning strategy of experimentation, deliberate for him per- But we have persisted in this usage for one reason: haps though who can know whether he had the learning.

Purely deliberate strategy precludes learn- whole stream in mind or simply planned one film ing once the strategy is formulated; emergent strat- at a time? Then 20 egy fosters it. People take actions one by one and years later, others followed his lead and the trickle respond to them, so that patterns eventually form. She makes another and NFB. Senior management was not keen on producing another and another.

Eventually, after days or films for the new medium. But while the arguments months or years, she finally has what she wants.

She raged, one filmmaker quietly went off and made a is off on a new strategy. That precedent set, one by one In practice, of course, all strategy making walks his colleagues leapt in, and within months the NFB— on two feet, one deliberate, the other emergent. For and its management—found themselves committed just as purely deliberate strategy making precludes for several years to a new strategy with an intensity learning, so purely emergent strategy making pre- unmatched before or since.

This consensus strategy cludes control. Pushed to the limit, neither approach arose spontaneously, as a result of many independent makes much sense. Learning must be coupled with decisions made by the filmmakers about the films control. That is why the McGill research group uses they wished to make. Can we call this strategy delib- the word strategy for both emergent and deliberate erate? For the filmmakers perhaps; for senior man- behavior.

But for the organization? It Likewise, there is no such thing as a purely delib- all depends on your perspective, on how you choose erate strategy or a purely emergent one. Craft requires control just as it American motorcycle market. Brilliant as its strat- requires responsiveness to the material at hand.

Some strate- formula.

One, described in the sidebar, is a research project on patterns in strategy formation that has been going on at McGill University under my direction since The second is the stream of work of a successful potter, my wife, who began her craft in Tracking Strategy In , I became intrigued by an unusual definition of strategy as a pattern in a stream of decisions later changed to actions.

I initiated a research project at McGill University, and over the next 13 years a team of us tracked the strategies of 11 organizations over several decades of their history. Students at various levels also carried out about 20 other less comprehensive studies.

As a first step, we developed chronological lists and graphs of the most important actions taken by each organization—such as store openings and closings, new flight destinations, and new product introductions.

Second, we inferred patterns in these actions and labeled them as strategies. Third, we represented graphically all the strategies we inferred in an organization so that we could line them up to see whether there were distinct periods in their development—for example, periods of stability, flux, or global change.

Finally, armed with all this strategic history, the research team studied each set of findings to develop conclusions about the process of strategy formation. Three themes guided us: the interplay of environment, leadership, and organization; the pattern of strategic change; and the processes by which strategies form. This article presents those conclusions. Ask almost anyone what strategy is, and they will define it as a plan of some sort, an explicit guide to future behavior.

Then ask them what strategy a competitor or a government or even they themselves have actually pursued. Chances are they will describe consistency in past behavior—a pattern in action over time. Strategy, it turns out, is one of those words that people define in one way and often use in another, without realizing the difference.

The reason for this is simple. After all, if strategies can be planned and intended, they can also be pursued and realized or not realized, as the case may be. And pattern in action, or what we call realized strategy, explains that pursuit. Moreover, just as a plan need not produce a pattern some strategies that are intended are simply not realized , so too a pattern need not result from a plan.

An organization can have a pattern or realized strategy without knowing it, let alone making it explicit. Patterns, like beauty, are in the mind of the beholder, of course. Until , for example, she made small, decorative ceramic animals and objects of various kinds.

Indeed, for such large companies as Volkswagenwerk and Air Canada, in our research, it proved simpler! As well it should. A craftsman, after all, can change what she does in a studio a lot more easily than a Volkswagenwerk can retool its assembly lines. Mapping the product models at Volkswagenwerk from the late s to the late s, for example, uncovers a clear pattern of concentration on the Beetle, followed in the late s by a frantic search for replacements through acquisitions and internally developed new models, to a strategic reorientation around more stylish, water-cooled, frontwheel-drive vehicles in the mids.

But what about intended strategies, those formal plans and pronouncements we think of when we use the term strategy? Ironically, here we run into all kinds of problems. Even with a single craftsman, how can we know what her intended strategies really were?

If we could go back, would we find expressions of intention? And if we could, would we be able to trust them? We often fool ourselves, as well as others, by denying our subconscious motives. And remember that intentions are cheap, at least when compared with realizations.

For who knows what the intended strategies of a Volkswagenwerk really mean, let alone what they are? Might these be just vain hopes or rationalizations or ploys to fool the competition? And even if expressed intentions exist, to what extent do others in the organization share them? How do we read the collective mind? Who is the strategist anyway? The traditional view of strategic management resolves these problems quite simply, by what organizational theorists call attribution.

You see it all the time in the business press. Given realization, there must have been intention, and that is automatically attributed to the chief. In a short magazine article, this assumption is understandable. But just consider all the complexity and confusion that gets tucked under this assumption—all the meetings and debates, the many people, the dead ends, the folding and unfolding of ideas. Now imagine trying to build a formal strategy-making system around that assumption.

Is it any wonder that formal strategic planning is often such a resounding failure? To unravel some of the confusion—and move away from the artificial complexity we have piled around the strategy-making process—we need to get back to some basic concepts. The most basic of all is the intimate connection between thought and action. That is the key to craft, and so also to the crafting of strategy. Virtually everything that has been written about strategy making depicts it as a deliberate process.

First we think, then we act. We formulate, then we implement. The progression seems so perfectly sensible.

Why would anybody want to proceed differently? Our potter is in the studio, rolling the clay to make a waferlike sculpture. The clay sticks to the rolling pin, and a round form appears.

Why not make a cylindrical vase? One idea leads to another, until a new pattern forms. Action has driven thinking: a strategy has emerged. Out in the field, a salesman visits a customer.

The salesman returns to his company and puts the changes through; after two or three more rounds, they finally get it right. A new product emerges, which eventually opens up a new market. The company has changed strategic course. In fact, most salespeople are less fortunate than this one or than our craftsman. In an organization of one, the implementor is the formulator, so innovations can be incorporated into strategy quickly and easily. In a large organization, the innovator may be ten levels removed from the leader who is supposed to dictate strategy and may also have to sell the idea to dozens of peers doing the same job.

Some salespeople, of course, can proceed on their own, modifying products to suit their customers and convincing skunkworks in the factory to produce them. In effect, they pursue their own strategies. Maybe no one else notices or cares. Is this story farfetched?

Certainly not.

Crafting Strategy

The NFB is a federal government agency, famous for its creativity and expert in the production of short documentaries. Some years back, it funded a filmmaker on a project that unexpectedly ran long.

To distribute his film, the NFB turned to theaters and so inadvertently gained experience in marketing feature-length films. Other filmmakers caught onto the idea, and eventually the NFB found itself pursuing a feature-film strategy—a pattern of producing such films.

My point is simple, deceptively simple: strategies can form as well as be formulated. A realized strategy can emerge in response to an evolving situation, or it can be brought about deliberately, through a process of formulation followed by implementation. But when these planned intentions do not produce the desired actions, organizations are left with unrealized strategies.

Today we hear a great deal about unrealized strategies, almost always in concert with the claim that implementation has failed. Excuses abound.

(PDF) Henry Mintzberg on Strategic Management | Geetha Alagirisamy - nipalraroter.tk

At times, indeed, they may be valid. But often these explanations prove too easy. So some people look beyond implementation to formulation.

While it is certainly true that many intended strategies are ill conceived, I believe that the problem often lies one step beyond, in the distinction we make between formulation and implementation, the common assumption that thought must be independent of and precede action. Sure, people could be smarter—but not only by conceiving more clever strategies. Smart strategists appreciate that they cannot always be smart enough to think through everything in advance. Yet large organizations try to separate the work of minds and hands.

In so doing, they often sever the vital feedback link between the two. The salesperson who finds a customer with an unmet need may possess the most strategic bit of information in the entire organization. But that information is useless if he or she cannot create a strategy in response to it or else convey the information to someone who can—because the channels are blocked or because the formulators have simply finished formulating.

The notion that strategy is something that should happen way up there, far removed from the details of running an organization on a daily basis, is one of the great fallacies of conventional strategic management.

And it explains a good many of the most dramatic failures in business and public policy today. Actions simply converge into patterns.

They may become deliberate, of course, if the pattern is recognized and then legitimated by senior management. All this may sound rather strange, I know. Strategies that emerge? Managers who acknowledge strategies already formed? Over the years, our research group at McGill has met with a good deal of resistance from people upset by what they perceive to be our passive definition of a word so bound up with proactive behavior and free will.

After all, strategy means control—the ancient Greeks used it to describe the art of the army general. Strategic Learning But we have persisted in this usage for one reason: learning. Purely deliberate strategy precludes learning once the strategy is formulated; emergent strategy fosters it.

People take actions one by one and respond to them, so that patterns eventually form. Our craftsman tries to make a freestanding sculptural form. She makes another and another and another. Eventually, after days or months or years, she finally has what she wants. She is off on a new strategy. In practice, of course, all strategy making walks on two feet, one deliberate, the other emergent.

For just as purely deliberate strategy making precludes learning, so purely emergent strategy making precludes control. Pushed to the limit, neither approach makes much sense. Learning must be coupled with control. That is why the McGill research group uses the word strategy for both emergent and deliberate behavior. Likewise, there is no such thing as a purely deliberate strategy or a purely emergent one.

No organization—not even the ones commanded by those ancient Greek generals—knows enough to work everything out in advance, to ignore learning en route.

And no one—not even a solitary potter—can be flexible enough to leave everything to happenstance, to give up all control. Craft requires control just as it requires responsiveness to the material at hand.

Thus deliberate and emergent strategy form the end points of a continuum along which the strategies that are crafted in the real world may be found. Some strategies may approach either end, but many more fall at intermediate points. Effective strategies can show up in the strangest places and develop through the most unexpected means. There is no one best way to make strategy. The form for a cat collapses on the wheel, and our potter sees a bull taking shape.

Clay sticks to a rolling pin, and a line of cylinders results. Wafers come into being because of a shortage of clay and limited kiln space in a studio in France.

Thus errors become opportunities, and limitations stimulate creativity. The natural propensity to experiment, even boredom, likewise stimulate strategic change. Organizations that craft their strategies have similar experiences. Recall the National Film Board with its inadvertently long film. Or consider its experiences with experimental films, which made special use of animation and sound. For 20 years, the NFB produced a bare but steady trickle of such films. McLaren pursued a personal strategy of experimentation, deliberate for him perhaps though who can know whether he had the whole stream in mind or simply planned one film at a time?

Then 20 years later, others followed his lead and the trickle widened, his personal strategy becoming more broadly organizational. Conversely, in , when television came to Canada, a consensus strategy quickly emerged at the NFB. Senior management was not keen on producing films for the new medium.

But while the arguments raged, one filmmaker quietly went off and made a single series for TV. That precedent set, one by one his colleagues leapt in, and within months the NFB—and its management—found themselves committed for several years to a new strategy with an intensity unmatched before or since.

This consensus strategy arose spontaneously, as a result of many independent decisions made by the filmmakers about the films they wished to make. Can we call this strategy deliberate? For the filmmakers perhaps; for senior management certainly not.

But for the organization? While the NFB may seem like an extreme case, it highlights behavior that can be found, albeit in muted form, in all organizations.

The Honda managers on site in America, driving their products themselves and thus inadvertently picking up market reaction , did only one thing right: they learned, firsthand.

Strategies grow like weeds in a garden. They take root in all kinds of places, wherever people have the capacity to learn because they are in touch with the situation and the resources to support that capacity.

These strategies become organizational when they become collective, that is, when they proliferate to guide the behavior of the organization at large. Of course, this view is overstated. But it is no less extreme than the conventional view of strategic management, which might be labeled the hothouse approach.

Neither is right. Reality falls between the two. Some of the most effective strategies we uncovered in our research combined deliberation and control with flexibility and organizational learning. Consider first what we call the umbrella strategy. Here senior management sets out broad guidelines say, to produce only high-margin products at the cutting edge of technology or to favor products using bonding technology and leaves the specifics such as what these products will be to others lower down in the organization.

This strategy is not only deliberate in its guidelines and emergent in its specifics , but it is also deliberately emergent in that the process is consciously managed to allow strategies to emerge en route. IBM used the umbrella strategy in the early s with the impending series, when its senior management approved a set of broad criteria for the design of a family of computers later developed in detail throughout the organization.

Here management controls the process of strategy formation—concerning itself with the design of the structure, its staffing, procedures, and so on—while leaving the actual content to others.

Related:


Copyright © 2019 nipalraroter.tk.